Let us see the structures that can cause back pain:

  1. Muscles
  2. Bones
  3. Joints
  4. Discs
  5. Nerve and
  6. Various abdominal organs pain that can present as back pain

so how to identify what is causing the back pain, basic knowledge to the patents will help them to go to the right doctor for consultation we need to consider so many factors but to simplify that

  1. Onset – sudden or gradual
  2. Location of the pain
  3. Severity-mild or severe
  4. Duration-acute or chronic
  5. Associated features like radiating pain
  6. Aggravating factors
  7. Relieving factors

By using above parameters, I am going to to explain what could be the possible reason for the back pain

  1.  Muscular Pain – most probably the commonest reason for the back pain is muscle spasm this is located on either side of the spine it could be sudden after a jerky movement or it could be gradual for a period of time due to abnormal posture that we assume while working or doing any activities, the pain is aggravated by the moments and relieved with rest located on either side of the spine.
  2.  Bone Pain – bone pain is localised ,sharp severe pain mostly associated with sudden trauma .sometimes in elderly people even mild trauma can cause fractures due to pre-existing osteoporosis of the spine. Bone pains are aggravated by the movements and relieved with rest. Tenderness of the spine will be there.
  3.  Joints – spine also contains numerous joints so many diseases can affect the joints and can cause pain. Localising pain aggravated by the movements and relieved with rest the pain, little bit vague and diffuse when compared to muscle and bone pains. The most common joints that are involved are sacroiliac joints which are located in the lower back on either side of the spine where Dimple like depressions are noted. normally these joint pains are associated with other joint pains in the body and sometimes associated with low grade fever. joint pains are severe in the morning times as the day progress the pains will come down.
  4.  Disc Pain – The disc pain is also sharp localising pain on either side of the spine mimicking the muscle spasm.
  5.  Nerve Root Pain Caused By Disc. – Most common cause of pain. When the nerve is compressed by the prolapse of the disc . the pain is located in the back adjacent to the spine mimicking a muscle spasm latter the pain will be radiating to the the legs along the back of the thigh up to the feet, it is due to irritation of the nerve by the disc fragment. This is called sciatica is due to compression of the sciatic nerve along its course. The most probable cause of sciatic pain is due to the prolapsed intervertebral disc causing compression of the nerves that are forming the sciatic nerve. this pain will be felt as back pain for time and starts radiating to the legs in the form of burning pain paraesthesia’s , numbness with difficulty walking due to pain. The pain is aggravated by any movements of the spine because the nerve is pinched by the prolapsed intervertebral disc particularly coughing and sneezing will aggravate the pain, the pain will shoot down the lower limb like a electrical shock like sensation.
  6.  Others – The common condition that will mimic back pain is renal calculi. A stone in the Kidney or ureter sometimes stone in the urinary bladder may present as back pain ,here the pain will be associated with burning micturition ,pain radiates to the the lion or groin area. Sometimes uterus related diseases, ovarian diseases ,large bowel diseases main present as back pain.

With this basic knowledge about the causes for the back pain the patient can analyse is the cause for the back pain and can approach appropriate doctor for the treatment